It is agreed upon that you will provide food and seating and probably be stuck with a lot of the cleanup at the end of the night. Similarly, your friends are playing the roles of guests, and they are expected to respect your property and any rules you may set forth (“Don’t leave the door open or the cat will get out.”). In this case, if you view yourself as a guest and others view you as a host, there are likely to be problems. Weber argued that although this leads to efficiency and rational, calculated decision making, it is in the end an irrational system. The emphasis on rationality and efficiency ultimately has negative effects when taken to the extreme.
According to the US Census Bureau data, there were more than 40 million Internet users in the United States in 1997. In the beginning, no differentiation was made in the fees perceived for domain names, all of them being charged the same amount. In the process, the practice of assigning one domain name per person was also renounced. Adoption of an Internet treaty and the creation of a global Internet organization . The lack of attention to sanctions and the limited efforts invested in monitoring exposed the fact that the new ordering was in-the-making.
Cultural concepts can help different segments of the organization work effectively or work against effectiveness towards information security within an organization. Information security culture is the “…totality of patterns of behavior in an organization that contributes to the protection of information of all kinds.” A backdoor in a computer system, a cryptosystem or an algorithm, is any secret method of bypassing normal authentication or security controls. They may exist for many reasons, including by original design or poor configuration. They may have been added by an authorized party to allow some legitimate access, or by an attacker for malicious reasons; but regardless of the motives for their existence, they create a vulnerability. Backdoors can be very hard to detect, and detection of backdoors is usually discovered by someone who has access to application source code or intimate knowledge of the operating system of the computer.
Two factor authentication is a method for mitigating unauthorized access to a system or sensitive information. It requires “something you know”; a password or PIN, and “something you have”; a card, dongle, cellphone, or another piece of hardware. This increases security as an unauthorized person needs both of these to gain access. “Response” is necessarily defined by the assessed security requirements of an individual system and may cover the range from simple upgrade of protections to notification of legal authorities, counter-attacks, and the like. In some special cases, the complete destruction of the compromised system is favored, as it may happen that not all the compromised resources are detected.
Privilege escalation describes a situation where an attacker with some level of restricted access is able to, without authorization, elevate their privileges or access level. For example, a standard computer user may be able to exploit a vulnerability in the system to gain access to restricted data; or even become “root” and have full unrestricted access to a system. Phishing is the attempt of acquiring sensitive information such as usernames, passwords, and credit card details directly from users by deceiving the users. Phishing is typically carried out by email spoofing or instant messaging, and it often directs users to enter details at a fake website whose “look” and “feel” are almost identical to the legitimate one. The fake website often asks for personal information, such as log-in details and passwords. This information can then be used to gain access to the individual’s real account on the real website.
With this, Trapp contributed to the concept of CSR by exemplifying the new roles and responsibilities that corporations are willing to take in order to generate shared value. Based on the five dimensions of CSR established by Burke and Logsdon , Husted and Allen surveyed 110 top managers of Spain’s largest companies and found out that visibility, appropriability, and voluntarism were considered the main strategic dimensions of CSR that can be linked to the creation of value . Their findings show that visibility, in terms of the presence of CSR on the media as well as a positive image of the producers use marketing intermediaries because they ________. company, can be linked to the creation of value through increased customer loyalty and the attraction of new customers, as well as developing new areas of opportunity for products and markets . Finally, Husted and Allen acknowledged voluntarism, the strategic management of socially-oriented policies going beyond legal requirements, as a key aspect for the creation of value. Nevertheless, their findings show that the surveyed firms were not implementing CSR policies beyond the legal requirements which might be the consequence of the intangibility and immeasurability of such activities .