This, in turn, implies that host countries will pursue a policy of openness to international trade to benefit from FDI . Income inequality is a major issue because it leads to a number of other adverse effects. These include economic inefficiency, undermining of social stability and solidarity and its unfairness to some sections of the society in general . As Todaro and Smith observe, as income inequality increases, the fraction of a population that can qualify for some form of credit reduces. When low income individuals are unable to borrow money, they may also be unable to afford education for their children, start businesses, and save, thus consequently leading to a lower overall rate of saving in the society.
Due to large fiscal deficit, aggregate demand was increasing which was feeding inflation in the Indian economy. According to the RBI, unless fiscal deficit is brought down by the government, tight monetary policy alone will not succeed in checking inflation. Besides, the RBI blamed supply-side factors responsible for food inflation which has contributed to overall rise in WPI inflation. Keynes, investment is determined more by marginal efficiency of capital rather than rate of interest. Thirdly, at present in India corporate firms are more easily able to borrow from foreign capital markets (i.e., external commercial borrowing, ECB) especially when rates of interest in the US, European zone and Japan are extremely low.
In this regard, the monetary policy has to play a selective or qualitative role in so far as it is possible through its operations to discriminate between productive and unproductive outlays. It should give a fillip to the former and stint the growth of the latter. Besides, when industry faces demand recession, public investment is an ideal tool to develop infrastructure and to increase the demand for industrial products through the operation of multiplier. Therefore, in our view, policy of raising public investment will crowd in private investment rather than crowding it out. In India a new technique of monetary policy has been designed to secure larger resources from the banking system for financing public investment. These determinants of economic growth affect the rate of investment and captia-output ratio.
Marginal opportunity cost is an economic term that analyzes the effect of producing additional units of a product on the costs of a business. Consumption is a function of income why do histones bind tightly to dna that can increase or decrease depending on how much one spends. Study the relationship between the marginal and average propensity to consume, and how to determine MPC.
FDI’s contribution to human capital in host countries is significant. MNEs increase workplaces, thereby reduce the unemployment in the host country. They usually provide higher wages and working conditions due to their higher productivity which is explained by greater technological know-how and modern management skills that enables them to compete effectively in foreign markets.
Economic growth indicates the expansion of the Gross Domestic Product of the country and the concept of Economic Growth is basically related to the developed countries. Economic Development is a broader concept than Economic Growth. Economic Development refers to the increase of the Real National Income of the economic and socio-economic structure of any country over a long period of time. Economic Development is related to underdeveloped or developing countries of the world. Economic Growth is the increase in the real output of the country in a particular span of time. Whereas, Economic Development is the increase in the level of production in an economy along with enrichment of living standards and the advancement of technology.
Expansionary fiscal policy involves higher government spending and/or cutting taxes to boost aggregate demand. This fiscal policy will lead to higher government borrowing, which can be a constraint on the policy. This growth in output per worker is a key factor behind economic growth.
The reduction in CRR and SLR releases resources for the banks to lend to the private businessmen for investment. Further, rapid population growth nullifies out efforts to raise the living standards of our people. In other words, a high rate of increase in population swallows up a large part of the increase in national income so that per capita income or living standard of the people does not rise much. It is worth noting here that changes in total GDP which are used to measure rate of economic growth are not a good measure of economic well-being. For the purpose of evaluating changes in economic well being or living standards of the people of a country GDP per capita is more important for it tells us the amount of goods and services that is available for an individual in the economy. We thus see that a rapidly growing labour force by itself is no guarantee of economic growth.